The following example developed by Dymond has sixty-six items containing positive and negative self statements. Try to determine which are positive and which are negative.
|1. I put on a false front
||34. I am shy
|2. I make strong demands on myself
||35. I am no one
|3. I often feel humiliated
||36. I am impulsive
|4. I have a feeling of hopelessness
||37. I am a rational person
|5. I have a warm emotional relationship
||38. I despise myself
|6. I have values of my own
||39. I am tolerant
|7. It is difficult to control aggression
||40. I shrink away from difficulty
|8. I am responsible for my troubles
||41. I have an attractive personality
|9. I feel like giving up
||42. I just don’t respect myself
|10. I am a responsible person
||43. I am ambitious
|11. I can accept most social values
||44. I am afraid of disagreements
|12. I am on guard with people
||45. I have initiative
|13. Self-control is no problem
||46. I have a positive attitude
|14. I usually like people
||47. I can’t make up my mind
|15. I often feel driven
||48. I am assertive
|16. I express my emotions freely
||49. I am confused
|17. I feel helpless
||50. I am satisfied with myself
|18. I have a comfortable life
||51. I am a failure
|19. My decisions are not my own
||52. I am likeable
|20. I am a hostile person
||53. I’m attractive to the opposite sex
|21. I battle with myself
||54. I fear accomplishment
|22. I am disorganized
||55. I am relaxed about most things
|23. I feel apathetic
||56. I am a hard worker
|24. I am optimistic
||57. I always give in
|25. I don’t trust my emotions
||58. I feel emotionally mature
|26. I’m liked by most people
||59. I am intelligent
|27. I often kick myself for things
||60. I am self-reliant
|28. Its pretty tough to be me
||61. I have to protect myself with excuses
|29. I’m not facing things
||62. I am different from others
|30. I make up my mind and stick to it
||63. I understand myself
|31. I don’t think about my problems
||64. I am a good mixer
|32. I am contented
||65. I feel adequate
|33. I am reliable
||66. I am poised
An important part of people’s interactions is the way they communicate with others. The impact individuals have on one another depends upon what they are willing to share about themselves and their impression management in a variety of social situations. Often, however, are unaware of their disclosing style and, therefore, are either surprised or disconcerted at the reactions of others to them. The Self-Disclosure Questionnaire by Sidney Jouard encourages people to reveal their feelings about disclosure and assess their interpersonal impact.
Who Knows You?
People differ in the extent to which they let people know them. Naturally, the things that are true about your personality, your feelings, your problems, hopes, and actions will change over your life time. Therefore, the idea that others have about you will be out of date from time to time. What was true about you last week or last year may no longer be true. When you see people after a lapse of time, and you want them to know you as you are now, you tell them about yourself so that they have a more up to date picture of you. If you don’t want them to know, you don’t tell them, even if they ask you personal questions.
Some of the things about yourself you will regard as more personal and private than others; people differ widely in what they consider appropriate to let others know, and what they consider is nobody’s business but their own.
Below there is a list of topics that pertain to you. You have a reasonably good idea of how much about yourself you have let the people in your life know about you. Choose one as a reference and follow the directions for answering the questionnaire. This will yield an accurate picture of you as you are now.
Use the scale to indicate your answers:
0: The other person doesn’t know me in this respect because I haven’t disclosed this.
1: The other person has a general idea of me but I haven’t updated or completed it
2: The other person fully knows me because we have talked about it recently.
X: This is something I wouldn’t confide even if asked.
1. What you dislike about your overall appearance.
2. The things about your appearance that you like most, or are proudest of.
3. Your chief health concern, worry, or problem at the present time.
4. Your favorite spare time hobbies or interests.
5. Your food dislikes at present.
6. Your religious activity at present.
7. Your personal religious views.
8. What do you like to read?
9. What annoys you about your closest friend?
10. If any, what problems do you have with sex?
11. Your perspective on your love life.
12. Things about your own personality that worry or annoy you.
13. The chief pressures and strains in your daily work.
14. Things about the future that worry you.
15. What are you most sensitive about?
16. What you feel guilty about or ashamed of in the present.
17. Your views about what is morally acceptable.
18. The kinds of music you enjoy listening to the most.
19. The subjects you didn’t like in school.
20. The things you do to maintain or improve your appearance.
21. The kind of behaviors in others that make you furious.
22. The characteristics of your father that are/were unlikeable.
23. The unattractive characteristics of your mother.
24. Your most frequent daydream.
25. The feelings you have the most trouble controlling.
26. The biggest disappointment you have had in your life.
27. How you feel about your choice of life work.
28. What you regard as your handicaps in doing good work.
29. Your views on race in America.
30. Your views on race in America.
31. Your thoughts and feelings about religious groups not your own.
32. Whether or not you have planned some major decision soon.
33. The kind of jokes you like to hear.
34. Your savings amount or that you have none.
35. The possessions you are most proud of and take care with most often.
36. How you usually sleep.
37. Your favorite TV programs.
38. Your favorite comics.
39. The groups or clubs or organizations you belong to.
40. The beverages you don’t like to drink and your preferred beverages.
Julian B. Rotter is the developer of a forced-choice 20 item scale for measuring an individual’s degree if internal control and external control. This I – E test is widely used. The following are sample items taken from an earlier version of the test, but not, of course, in use in the final version. The reader can readily find for himself/herself whether he/she is inclined toward internal control or toward external control, simply by adding up the choices he makes on each side.
|I more strongly believe that:
|1a) Promotions are earned through hard work and persistence
||b) Making a lot of money is largely a matter of getting the right breaks
|2a) In my experience I have noticed that there is usually a direct connection between how hard I work and the results I get
||b) Many times the reactions of others seem haphazard to me
|3a) The number of divorces indicates that more and more people are not trying to make their marriages work
||b) Marriage is largely a gamble
|4a) When I am right I can convince others
||b) It is silly to think that one can change another person’s basic attitudes
|5a) In our society a person’s future earning power is dependent upon ability
||b) Getting promoted is really a matter of being a little luckier than the next guy
|6a) If one knows how to deal with people, they are easily led
||b) I have little influence over the way other people behave
|7a) In my case the rewards I get are the results of my efforts
||b) Sometimes I feel my efforts don’t matter
|8a) People like me can change the course of events if we speak out
||b) Wishful thinking makes people think they can influence society
|9a) I am the master of my fate
||b) What happens to me is a matter of chance
|10a) Getting along with people has to be practiced
||b) It is almost impossible to figure out how to please some people
|11a) Getting involved in political and social movements is good
||b) Ordinary people are powerless to make their convictions felt
|12a) Through determination and will power, people can change
||b) Early experiences determine us and attempts to change will fail
|13a) Most auto accidents are the result of careless driving
||b) Weather conditions and poorly made vehicles causes most accidents
|14a) People who commit crimes are usually the products of poverty and emotional deprivation
||b) People become criminals because they would rather profit at the expense of others rather than work
|15a) Friendships are founded on “chemistry”, if it is wrong you can’t make it right
||b) When I behave in a friendly and interested way, people will probably like me
|16a) Most people would like to support themselves but are unable to do so sometimes
||b) Dependent people are often sick or lazy and cannot or won’t work
|17a) I believe that I can achieve my goals if I clearly define them and direct my energy toward achieving them
|| b) It is best to resign yourself to the fact that the future is largely determined by the circumstances into which you were born
|18a) Passing from childhood to old age is like travelling in a canoe without a paddle; one can only hold tightly to the sides and hope not to be dashed against rocks
|| b) I feel that my life is like a sailing vessel, and I am its Captain firmly in command at the helm
|19a) Inequality has existed for all of history so we must accept it as inevitable and part of the human condition
||b) Inequality can be overcome through the concerted efforts of political groups and governments
|20a) Certain people are “meant” for each other, if they are lucky enough to encounter one another
||b) An enduring relationship between two individuals is largely the result of empathy, consideration, commitment